Saturday, March 14, 2020

How to Write a Literary Analysis on ‘The Scarlet Letter’ by N. Hawthorne

How to Write a Literary Analysis on ‘The Scarlet Letter’ by N. Hawthorne Writing a literary analysis is a great way to get students to understand the importance and beauty of any classic work of literature. That is why your instructor is bound to assign one to you this semester. If ‘The Scarlet Letter’ by N. Hawthorne is on your reading list, chances are that you will need to write an analysis on this book. If this is your first time writing a literary analysis, this guide will outline everything you need to know in order to get started. The following lines detail manageable steps which are easy to follow. Think of this as a detailed template with explanations given at every stage. Now while everything you are about to read is related to ‘The Scarlet Letter’, you can use this outline every time you need to write a literary analysis. Before you begin, you need to decide on the aspect you will write about. This can be anything as far as it is relevant to the book. However, being more specific while selecting a topic shows how well you have researched your assignment, so make sure to choose a thoughtful and original idea. To write about ‘The Scarlet Letter’, refer to our list of 20 essay topics for ‘The Scarlet Letter’ by N. Hawthorne for a literary analysis and the 10 facts on ‘The Scarlet Letter’ by N. Hawthorne for a literary analysis. After finalizing your topic, you need to tackle the three parts of your essay: Introduction, Main Body, and Conclusion. Introduction The introduction should be able to catch the reader’s attention, which is why the first sentence is aptly called a â€Å"hook†. You should include the name of the author, the title of the work, and a short explanation of the theme you will be addressing. You also need to include a short introduction of the major characters and a summary of the work. To conclude the introduction, write your main thesis, i.e. a summary of your overall ideas. Write it using clear and strong words. Hook Name of the Author Title of the Literary Work Main Characters Short Summary Thesis Statement Body The body of the essay is composed of three to five topic sentences. This number varies on the word count of the assignment. Each topic paragraph has a few sub-parts which you need to include if you want a logically consistent essay. The advantage of following this structure is ensuring that each of your topic sentence ties in with your central thesis. Topic Paragraph: Topic Sentence - Describe how this paragraph proves your thesis Connector for Textual Evidence - Provide context for textual evidence Textual Evidence - Quote the relevant part of the text Analysis - Comment on the quote and how it proves your main argument (thesis) Close and Transition - Conclude the paragraph and transition on to the next paragraph Repeat this pattern for every paragraph, but skip the transition part for the last one. Conclusion To conclude your essay, you should present a summary of your main argument. Reword the summary, though, and do not re-use your introduction. Then, write out a broad statement which reflects the importance of the analysis you wrote. You should also explain the importance of the text and its themes. You will be able to complete the assignment easily if you stick to this outline. With your instructor’s guidelines to add, the format you read is all you need for writing a great literary analysis and getting a great grade.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Movie (Inception)Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Movie (Inception)Analysis - Essay Example The major themes of the movie are freedom and learning about and embracing the truth. There are only a few humans in the world that are free from the Matrix; these are the ones that are aware of the truth of the real world and the Matrix and have chosen to accept these truths. Furthermore, another aspect of freedom involves the fight that Neo and his crew face when it comes to the agents of the Matrix, which are the programs that ensure that everything is running smoothly within this cyberworld. This also leads into part of the central conflicts of the film. There are two central conflicts in the film: Neo versus Agent Smith, and the humans versus the machines. Agent Smith, who is about as free from the Matrix as the sleeping humans are, is against the fact that Neo understands the truth about the Matrix. Smith does not like the enemy he has found in Neo. The humans versus the machines is the original conflict, something that began before the start of the movie. The purpose of this fight is to make sure that as few humans as possible know about the Matrix setup. As it is, the humans that do know is too many for comfort to the machines. The freed humans, however, feel that it is their duty to make aware as many sleeping humans that they can. Unfortunately, part of this battle involves keeping away from the curious machines as much as possible - an impossible feat. These tensions are not resolved. By the end of the film, the two separate battles are still raging. Neo does temporarily defeat Agent Smith, but the other agents are ready to take on the task of bringing down the free humans. The war between humans and machines continue on. One of the main things that kept coming up throughout the film is the obvious differences between the real world and the Matrix; the physical reality and the computerized mockery of life. Furthermore, there are many religious,

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

The human resource system in the accounting profession Term Paper

The human resource system in the accounting profession - Term Paper Example Working in a small organization gives a person an opportunity to share ideas and issues that might be affecting his/her performance. This reduces the need for having a human resource department. On the other hand, working in a small organization exposes an employee to exploitation because such organization does not require human resource to run the affairs of the organization. Therefore challenges that an employee goes through are not well adressed (Rothwell, Taylor, & Prescott, 2010). Working in a large organization creates harmony and togetherness due to teamwork. This reduces the need for human resource to use rewarding system in order to motivate the employees. In addition, one can be able to further his/her training due to different training programs that are suggested by human resource department (Hopper, Uddin, & Tsamenyi, 2012). As a result one is able to diversify his/her skills. On the other hand, working in a large organization reduces management concentration on a single individual. A large organization deals with many people therefore becoming hard to understand individual’s problem and challenges that might be affecting the performance (Daft,

Friday, January 31, 2020

Virtue - Plato Essay Example for Free

Virtue Plato Essay And others who are mute auditors. The scene is laid in the house of Cephalus at the Piraeus; and the whole dialogue is narrated by Socrates the day after it actually took place to Timaeus Hermocrates, Critias, and a nameless person, who are introduced in the Timaeus. I WENT down yesterday to the Piraeus with Glaucon, the son of Ariston, that I might offer up my prayers to the goddess; and also because I wanted to see in what man- ner they would celebrate the festival, which was a new thing. I was delighted with the procession of the inhabitants; but that of the Thracians was equally, if not more, beautiful. When we had finished our prayers and viewed the spectacle, we turned in the direction of the city; and at that instant Polemarchus, the son of Cephalus, chanced to catch sight of us from a distance as we were starting on our way home, and told his servant to run and bid us wait for him. The servant took hold of me by the cloak behind, and said, Polemarchus desires you to wait. I turned round, and asked him where his master was. There he is, said the youth, coming after you, if you will only wait. Certainly we will, said Glaucon; and in a few minutes Polemarchus appeared, and with him Adeimantus, Glaucons brother, Niceratus, the son of Nicias, and several others who had been at the procession. Polemarchus said to me, I perceive, Socrates, that you and your companion are already on your way to the city. You are not far wrong, I said. But do you see, he rejoined, how many we are? Of course. And are you stronger than all these? for if not, you will have to remain where you are. May there not be the alternative, I said, that we may per- suade you to let us go? But can you persuade us, if we refuse to listen to you? he said. Certainly not, replied Glaucon. Then we are not going to listen; of that you may be assured. Adeimantus added: Has no one told you of the torch-race on horseback in honor of the goddess which will take place in the evening? With horses! I replied. That is a novelty. Will horsemen carry torches and pass them one to another during the race? Yes, said Polemarchus; and not only so, but a festival will be celebrated at night, which you certainly ought to see. Let us rise soon after supper and see this festival; there will be a gathering of young men, and we will have a good talk. Stay then, and do not be perverse. Glaucon said, I suppose, since you insist, that we must. Very good, I replied. Accordingly we went with Polemarchus to his house; and there we found his brothers Lysias and Euthydemus, and with them Thrasymachus the Chalcedonian, Charmantides the Paeanian, and Cleitophon, the son of Aristonymus. There too was Cephalus, the father of Polemarchus, whom I had not seen for a long time, and I thought him very much aged. He was seated on a cushioned chair, and had a garland on his head, for he had been sacrificing in the court; and there were some other chairs in the room arranged in a semicircle, upon which we sat down by him. He saluted me eagerly, and then he said: You dont come to see me, Socrates, as often as you ought: If I were still able to go and see you I would not ask you to come to me. But at my age I can hardly get to the city, and therefore you should come oftener to the Piraeus. For, let me tell you that the more the pleasures of the body fade away, the greater to me are the pleasure and charm of conversation. Do not, then, deny my request, but make our house your re- sort and keep company with these young men; we are old friends, and you will be quite at home with us. I replied: There is nothing which for my part I like better, Cephalus, than conversing with aged men; for I regard them as travellers who have gone a journey which I too may have to go, and of whom I ought to inquire whether the way is smooth and easy or rugged and difficult. And this is a question which I should like to ask of you, who have arrived at that time which the poets call the threshold of old age: Is life harder toward the end, or what report do you give of it? I will tell you, Socrates, he said, what my own feeling is. Men of my age flock together; we are birds of a feather, as the old proverb says; and at our meetings the tale of my acquaintance commonly is: I cannot eat, I cannot drink; the pleasures of youth and love are fled away; there was a good time once, but now that is gone, and life is no longer life. Some complain of the slights which are put upon them by relations, and they will tell you sadly of how many evils their old age is the cause. But to me, Socrates, these complainers seem to blame that which is not really in fault. For if old age were the cause, I too, being old, and every other old man would have felt as they do. But this is not my own experi- ence, nor that of others whom I have known. How well I remember the aged poet Sophocles, when in answer to the question, How does love suit with age, Sophocles — are you still the man you were? Peace, he replied; most gladly have I escaped the thing of which you speak; I feel as if I had escaped from a mad and furious master. His words have often occurred to my mind since, and they seem as good to me now as at the time when he uttered them. For certainly old age has a great sense of calm and freedom; when the pas- sions relax their hold, then, as Sophocles says, we are freed from the grasp not of one mad master only, but of many. The truth is, Socrates, that these regrets, and also the complaints about relations, are to be attributed to the same cause, which is not old age, but mens characters and tempers; for he who is of a calm and happy nature will hardly feel the pressure of age, but to him who is of an opposite disposition youth and age are equally a burden. I listened in admiration, and wanting to draw him out, that he might go on — Yes, Cephalus, I said; but I rather suspect that people in general are not convinced by you when you speak thus; they think that old age sits lightly upon you, not because of your happy disposition, but because you are rich, and wealth is well known to be a great comforter. You are right, he replied; they are not convinced: and there is something in what they say; not, however, so much as they imagine. I might answer them as Themistocles answered the Seriphian who was abusing him and saying that he was famous, not for his own merits but because he was an Athenian: If you had been a native of my country or I of yours, neither of us would have been famous. And to those who are not rich and are impatient of old age, the same reply may be made; for to the good poor man old age can- not be a light burden, nor can a bad rich man ever have peace with himself. May I ask, Cephalus, whether your fortune was for the most part inherited or acquired by you? Acquired! Socrates; do you want to know how much I acquired? In the art of making money I have been midway between my father and grandfather: for my grandfather, whose name I bear, doubled and trebled the value of his patrimony, that which he inherited being much what I possess now; but my father, Lysanias, reduced the property below what it is at present; and I shall be satisfied if I leave to these my sons not less, but a little more, than I received. That was why I asked you the question, I replied, because I see that you are indifferent about money, which is a characteristic rather of those who have inherited their fortunes than of those who have acquired them; the makers of fortunes have a second love of money as a creation of their own, resembling the affection of authors for their own poems, or of parents for their children, besides that natural love of it for the sake of use and profit which is common to them and all men. And hence they are very bad company, for they can talk about nothing but the praises of wealth. That is true, he said. Yes, that is very true, but may I ask another question? — What do you consider to be the greatest blessing which you have reaped from your wealth? One, he said, of which I could not expect easily to convince others. For let me tell you, Socrates, that when a man thinks himself to be near death, fears and cares enter into his mind which he never had before; the tales of a world below and the punishment which is exacted there of deeds done here were once a laughing matter to him, but now he is tormented with the thought that they may be true: either from the weakness of age, or because he is now drawing nearer to that other place, he has a clearer view of these things; suspicions and alarms crowd thickly upon him, and he begins to reflect and consider what wrongs he has done to others. And when he finds that the sum of his transgressions is great he will many a time like a child start up in his sleep for fear, and he is filled with dark forebodings. But to him who is conscious of no sin, sweet hope, as Pindar charmingly says, is the kind nurse of his age: Hope, he says, cherishes the soul of him who lives in justice and holiness, and is the nurse of his age and the companion of his journey — hope which is mightiest to sway the restless soul of man. How admirable are his words! And the great blessing of riches, I do not say to every man, but to a good man, is, that he has had no occasion to deceive or to defraud others, either intentionally or unintentionally; and when he departs to the world below he is not in any apprehension about offerings due to the gods or debts which he owes to men. Now to this peace of mind the possession of wealth greatly contributes; and there-fore I say, that, setting one thing against another, of the many advantages which wealth has to give, to a man of sense this is in my opinion the greatest. Well said, Cephalus, I replied; but as concerning justice, what is it? — to speak the truth and to pay your debtsno more than this? And even to this are there not exceptions? Sup- pose that a friend when in his right mind has deposited arms with me and he asks for them when he is not in his right mind, ought I to give them back to him? No one would say that I ought or that I should be right in doing so, any more than they would say that I ought always to speak the truth to one who is in his condition. You are quite right, he replied. But then, I said, speaking the truth and paying your debts is not a correct definition of justice. Quite correct, Socrates, if Simonides is to be believed, said Polemarchus, interposing. I fear, said Cephalus, that I must go now, for I have to look after the sacrifices, and I hand over the argument to Polem- archus and the company. Is not Polemarchus your heir? I said. To be sure, he answered, and went away laughing to the sacrifices. Tell me then, O thou heir of the argument, what did Simonides say, and according to you, truly say, about justice? He said that the repayment of a debt is just, and in saying so he appears to me to be right. I shall be sorry to doubt the word of such a wise and inspired man, but his meaning, though probably clear to you, is the re- verse of clear to me. For he certainly does not mean, as we were just now saying, that I ought to return a deposit of arms or of anything else to one who asks for it when he is not in his right senses; and yet a deposit cannot be denied to be a debt. True. Then when the person who asks me is not in his right mind I am by no means to make the return? Certainly not. When Simonides said that the repayment of a debt was jus- tice, he did not mean to include that case? Certainly not; for he thinks that a friend ought always to do good to a friend, and never evil. You mean that the return of a deposit of gold which is to the injury of the receiver, if the two parties are friends, is not the repayment of a debt — that is what you would imagine him to say? Yes. And are enemies also to receive what we owe to them? To be sure, he said, they are to receive what we owe them; and an enemy, as I take it, owes to an enemy that which is due or proper to himthat is to say, evil. Simonides, then, after the manner of poets, would seem to have spoken darkly of the nature of justice; for he really meant to say that justice is the giving to each man what is proper to him, and this he termed a debt. That must have been his meaning, he said. By heaven! I replied; and if we asked him what due or proper thing is given by medicine, and to whom, what answer do you think that he would make to us? He would surely reply that medicine gives drugs and meat and drink to human bodies. And what due or proper thing is given by cookery, and to what? Seasoning to food. And what is that which justice gives, and to whom? If, Socrates, we are to be guided at all by the analogy of the preceding instances, then justice is the art which gives good to friends and evil to enemies. That is his meaning, then? I think so. And who is best able to do good to his friends and evil to his enemies in time of sickness? The physician. Or when they are on a voyage, amid the perils of the sea? The pilot. And in what sort of actions or with a view to what result is the just man most able to do harm to his enemy and good to his friend? In going to war against the one and in making alliances with the other. But when a man is well, my dear Polemarchus, there is no need of a physician? No. And he who is not on a voyage has no need of a pilot? No. Then in time of peace justice will be of no use? I am very far from thinking so. You think that justice may be of use in peace as well as in war? Yes. Like husbandry for the acquisition of corn? Yes. Or like shoemaking for the acquisition of shoes — that is what you mean? Yes. And what similar use or power of acquisition has justice in time of peace? In contracts, Socrates, justice is of use. And by contracts you mean partnerships? Exactly. But is the just man or the skilful player a more useful and better partner at a game of draughts? The skilful player. And in the laying of bricks and stones is the just man a more useful or better partner than the builder? Quite the reverse. Then in what sort of partnership is the just man a better partner than the harp-player, as in playing the harp the harp- player is certainly a better partner than the just man? In a money partnership. Yes, Polemarchus, but surely not in the use of money; for you do not want a just man to be your counsellor in the purchase or sale of a horse; a man who is knowing about horses would be better for that, would he not? Certainly. And when you want to buy a ship, the shipwright or the pilot would be better? True. Then what is that joint use of silver or gold in which the just man is to be preferred? When you want a deposit to be kept safely. You mean when money is not wanted, but allowed to lie? Precisely. That is to say, justice is useful when money is useless? That is the inference. And when you want to keep a pruning-hook safe, then justice is useful to the individual and to the State; but when you want to use it, then the art of the vine-dresser? Clearly. And when you want to keep a shield or a lyre, and not to use them, you would say that justice is useful; but when you want to use them, then the art of the soldier or of the musician? Certainly. And so of all other things —justice is useful when they are useless, and useless when they are useful? That is the inference. Then justice is not good for much. But let us consider this further point: Is not he who can best strike a blow in a boxing match or in any kind of fighting best able to ward off a blow? Certainly. And he who is most skilful in preventing or escaping from a disease is best able to create one? True. And he is the best guard of a camp who is best able to steal a march upon the enemy? Certainly. Then he who is a good keeper of anything is also a good thief? That, I suppose, is to be inferred. Then if the just man is good at keeping money, he is good at stealing it. implied in the argument. That is Then after all, the just man has turned out to be a thief. And this is a lesson which I suspect you must have learnt out of Homer; for he, speaking of Autolycus, the maternal grand- father of Odysseus, who is a favorite of his, affirms that He was excellent above all men in theft and perjury. And so, you and Homer and Simonides are agreed that justice is an art of theft; to be practised, however, for the good of friends and for the harm of enemies — that was what you were saying? No, certainly not that, though I do not now know what I did say; but I still stand by the latter words. Well, there is another question: By friends and enemies do we mean those who are so really, or only in seeming? Surely, he said, a man may be expected to love those whom he thinks good, and to hate those whom he thinks evil. Yes, but do not persons often err about good and evil: many who are not good seem to be so, and conversely? That is true. Then to them the good will be enemies and the evil will be their friends? True. And in that case they will be right in doing good to the evil and evil to the good? Clearly. But the good are just and would not do an injustice? True. Then according to your argument it is just to injure those who do no wrong? Nay, Socrates; the doctrine is immoral. Then I suppose that we ought to do good to the just and harm to the unjust? that better. I like But see the consequence: Many a man who is ignorant of human nature has friends who are bad friends, and in that case he ought to do harm to them; and he has good enemies whom he ought to benefit; but, if so, we shall be saying the very op- posite of that which we affirmed to be the meaning of Simonides. Very true, he said; and I think that we had better correct an error into which we seem to have fallen in the use of the words friend and enemy. What was the error, Polemarchus? I asked. We assumed that he is a friend who seems to be or who is thought good. And how is the error to be corrected? We should rather say that he is a friend who is, as well as seems, good; and that he who seems only and is not good, only seems to be and is not a friend; and of an enemy the same may be said. You would argue that the good are our friends and the bad our enemies? Yes. And instead of saying simply as we did at first, that it is just to do good to our friends and harm to our enemies, we should further say: It is just to do good to our friends when they are good, and harm to our enemies when they are evil? Yes, that appears to me to be the truth. But ought the just to injure anyone at all? Undoubtedly he ought to injure those who are both wicked and his enemies. When horses are injured, are they improved or deteriorated? The latter. Deteriorated, that is to say, in the good qualities of horses, not of dogs? Yes, of horses. And dogs are deteriorated in the good qualities of dogs, and not of horses? Of course. And will not men who are injured be deteriorated in that which is the proper virtue of man? Certainly. And that human virtue is justice? To be sure. Then men who are injured are of necessity made unjust? That is the result. But can the musician by his art make men unmusical? Certainly not. Or the horseman by his art make them bad horsemen? Impossible. And can the just by justice make men unjust, or speaking generally, can the good by virtue make them bad? Assuredly not. Any more than heat can produce cold? It cannot. Or drought moisture? Clearly not. Nor can the good harm anyone? Impossible. And the just is the good? Certainly. Then to injure a friend or anyone else is not the act of a just man, but of the opposite, who is the unjust? I think that what you say is quite true, Socrates. Then if a man says that justice consists in the repayment of debts, and that good is the debt which a just man owes to his friends, and evil the debt which he owes to his enemies — to say this is not wise; for it is not true, if, as has been clearly shown, the injuring of another can be in no case just. I agree with you, said Polemarchus. Then you and I are prepared to take up arms against anyone who attributes such a saying to Simonides or Bias or Pittacus, or any other wise man or seer? I am quite ready to do battle at your side, he said. Shall I tell you whose I believe the saying to be? Whose? I believe that Periander or Perdiccas or Xerxes or Ismenias the Theban, or some other rich and mighty man, who had a great opinion of his own power, was the first to say that justice is doing good to your friends and harm to your enemies. Most true, he said. Yes, I said; but if this definition of justice also breaks down, what other can be offered? Several times in the course of the discussion Thrasymachus had made an attempt to get the argument into his own hands, and had been put down by the rest of the company, who wanted to hear the end. But when Polemarchus and I had done speaking and there was a pause, he could no longer hold his peace; and, gathering himself up, he came at us like a wild beast, seeking to devour us. We were quite panic-stricken at the sight of him. He roared out to the whole company: What folly, Socrates, has taken possession of you all? And why, sillybillies, do you knock under to one another? I say that if you want really to know what justice is, you should not only ask but answer, and you should not seek honor to yourself from the refutation of an opponent, but have your own answer; for there is many a one who can ask and cannot answer. And now I will not have you say that justice is duty or advantage or profit or gain or interest, for this sort of nonsense will not do for me; I must have clearness and accuracy. I was panic-stricken at his words, and could not look at him without trembling. Indeed I believe that if I had not fixed my eye upon him, I should have been struck dumb: but when I saw his fury rising, I looked at him first, and was therefore able to reply to him. Thrasymachus, I said, with a quiver, dont be hard upon us. Polemarchus and I may have been guilty of a little mistake in the argument, but I can assure you that the error was not in- tentional. If we were seeking for a piece of gold, you would not imagine that we were knocking under to one another, and so losing our chance of finding it. And why, when we are seeking for justice, a thing more precious than many pieces of gold, do you say that we are weakly yielding to one another and not doing our utmost to get at the truth? Nay, my good friend, we are most willing and anxious to do so, but the fact is that we cannot. And if so, you people who know all things should pity us and not be angry with us. How characteristic of Socrates! he replied, with a bitter laugh; thats your ironical style! Did I not foresee — have I not already told you, that whatever he was asked he would refuse to answer, and try irony or any other shuffle, in order that he might avoid answering? You are a philosopher, Thrasymachus, I replied, and well know that if you ask a person what numbers make up twelve, taking care to prohibit him whom you ask from answering twice six, or three times four, or six times two, or four times three, for this sort of nonsense will not do for me — then obviously, if that is your way of putting the question, no one can answer you. But suppose that he were to retort: Thrasymachus, what do you mean? If one of these numbers which you interdict be the true answer to the question, am I falsely to say some other number which is not the right one? — is that your meaning? — How would you answer him? Just as if the two cases were at all alike! he said. Why should they not be? I replied; and even if they are not, but only appear to be so to the person who is asked, ought he not to say what he thinks, whether you and I forbid him or not? I presume then that you are going to make one of the interdicted answers? I dare say that I may, notwithstanding the danger, if upon reflection I approve of any of them. But what if I give you an answer about justice other and better, he said, than any of these? What do you deserve to have done to you? Done to me! — as becomes the ignorant, I must learn from the wise — that is what I deserve to have done to me. What, and no payment! A pleasant notion! I will pay when I have the money, I replied. But you have, Socrates, said Glaucon: and you, Thrasyma- chus, need be under no anxiety about money, for we will all make a contribution for Socrates. Yes, he replied, and then Socrates will do as he always does — refuse to answer himself, but take and pull to pieces the answer of someone else. Why, my good friend, I said, how can anyone answer who knows, and says that he knows, just nothing; and who, even if he has some faint notions of his own, is told by a man of authority not to utter them? The natural thing is, that the speaker should be someone like yourself who professes to know and can tell what he knows. Will you then kindly answer, for the edification of the company and of myself? Glaucon and the rest of the company joined in my request, and Thrasymachus, as anyone might see, was in reality eager to speak; for he thought that he had an excellent answer, and would distinguish himself. But at first he affected to insist on my answering; at length he consented to begin. Behold, he said, the wisdom of Socrates; he refuses to teach himself, and goes about learning of others, to whom he never even says, Thank you. That I learn of others, I replied, is quite true; but that I am ungrateful I wholly deny. Money I have none, and therefore I pay in praise, which is all I have; and how ready I am to praise anyone who appears to me to speak well you will very soon find out when you answer; for I expect that you will answer well. Listen, then, he said; I proclaim that justice is nothing else than the interest of the stronger. And now why do you not praise me? But of course you wont. Let me first understand you, I replied. Justice, as you say, is the interest of the stronger. What, Thrasymachus, is the meaning of this? You cannot mean to say that because Polyd- amas, the pancratiast, is stronger than we are, and finds the eating of beef conducive to his bodily strength, that to eat beef is therefore equally for our good who are weaker than he is, and right and just for us? Thats abominable of you, Socrates; you take the words in the sense which is most damaging to the argument. Not at all, my good sir, I said; I am trying to understand them; and I wish that you would be a little clearer. Well, he said, have you never heard that forms of govern- ment differ — there are tyrannies, and there are democracies, and there are aristocracies? Yes, I know. And the government is the ruling power in each State? Certainly. And the different forms of government make laws demo- cratical, aristocratical, tyrannical, with a view to their several interests; and these laws, which are made by them for their own interests, are the justice which they deliver to their subjects, and him who transgresses them they punish as a breaker of the law, and unjust. And that is what I mean when I say that in all States there is the same principle of justice, which is the interest of the government; and as the government must be supposed to have power, the only reasonable conclusion is that everywhere there is one principle of justice, which is the interest of the stronger. Now I understand you, I said; and whether you are right or not I will try to discover. But let me remark that in defining justice you have yourself used the word interest, which you forbade me to use. It is true, however, that in your definition the words of the stronger are added. A small addition, you must allow, he said. Great or small, never mind about that: we must first inquire whether what you are saying is the truth. Now we are both agreed that justice is interest of some sort, but you go on to say of the stronger; about this addition I am not so sure, and must therefore consider further. Proceed. I will; and first tell me, Do you admit that it is just for sub- jects to obey their rulers? I do. But are the rulers of States absolutely infallible, or are they sometimes liable to err? To be sure, he replied, they are liable to err? Then in making their laws they may sometimes make them rightly, and sometimes not? True. When they make them rightly, they make them agreeably to their interest; when they are mistaken, contrary to their in- terest; you admit that? Yes. And the laws which they make must be obeyed by their sub- jectsand that is what you call justice? Doubtless. Then justice, according to your argument, is not only obedience to the interest of the stronger, but the reverse? What is that you are saying? he asked. I am only repeating what you are saying, I believe. But let us consider: Have we not admitted that the rulers may be mistaken about their own interest in what they command, and also that to obey them is justice? Has not that been admitted? Yes. Then you must also have acknowledged justice not to be for the interest of the stronger, when the rulers unintentionally command things to be done which are to their own injury. For if, as you say, justice is the obedience which the subject renders to their commands, in that case, O wisest of men, is there any escape from the conclusion that the weaker are commanded to do, not what is for the interest, but what is for the injury of the stronger? Nothing can be clearer, Socrates, said Polemarchus. Yes, said Cleitophon, interposing, if you are allowed to be his witness. But there is no need of any witness, said Polemarchus, for Thrasymachus himself acknowledges that rulers may some- time command what is not for their own interest, and that for subjects to obey them is justice. Yes, Polemarchus — Thrasymachus said that for subjects to do what was commanded by their rulers is just. Yes, Cleitophon, but he also said that justice is the interest of the stronger, and, while admitting both these propositions, he further acknowledged that the stronger may command the weaker who are his subjects to do what is not for his own interest; whence follows that justice is the injury quite as much as the interest of the stronger. But, said Cleitophon, he meant by the interest of the stronger what the stronger thought to be his interest — this was what the weaker had to do; and this was affirmed by him to be justice. Those were not his words, rejoined Polemarchus. Never mind, I replied, if he now says that they are, let us accept his statement. Tell me, Thrasymachus, I said, did you mean by justice what the stronger thought to be his interest, whether really so or not? Certainly not, he said. Do you suppose that I call him who is mistaken the stronger at the time when he is mistaken? Yes, I said, my impression was that you did so, when you admitted that the ruler was not infallible, but might be sometimes mistaken. You argue like an informer, Socrates. Do you mean, for example, that he who is mistaken about the sick is a physician in that he is mistaken? or that he who errs in arithmetic or grammar is an arithmetician or grammarian at the time when he is making the mistake, in respect of the mistake? True, we say that the physician or arithmetician or grammarian has made a mistake, but this is only a way of speaking; for the fact is that neither the grammarian nor any other person of skill ever makes a mistake in so far as he is what his name implies; they none of them err unless their skill fails them, and then they cease to be skilled artists. No artist or sage or ruler errs at the time when he is what his name implies; though he is commonly said to err, and I adopted the common mode of speaking. But to be perfectly accurate, since you are such a lover of accuracy, we should say that the ruler, in so far as he is a ruler, is unerr- ing, and, being unerring, always commands that which is for his own interest; and the subject is required to execute his com- mands; and therefore, as I said at first and now repeat, justice is the interest of the stronger. Indeed, Thrasymachus, and do I really appear to you to argue like an informer? Certainly, he replied. And do you suppose that I ask these questions with any de- sign of injuring you in the argument? Nay, he replied, suppose is not the word — I know it; but you will be found out, and by sheer force of argument you will never prevail.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Buddhism: The 4 noble truths Essay -- Buddhist Buddha essays research

Buddhism’s Four Noble Truths Siddharta Gautama was twenty-nine years old when he abandoned his family to search for a means to bring to an end his and other’s suffering after studying meditation for many years. At age thirty-five, Siddharta Gautama sat down under the shade of a fig tree to meditate and he determined to meditate until he reached enlightenment. After seven weeks he received the Great Enlightenment which he referred to as the Four Noble Truths and the Eight-fold Path. Henceforth he became known as the Buddha. In The Heart of the Buddha’s Teaching, Thich Nhat Hanh provides a citation from the Buddha, which gives insight into the cure of our distress. â€Å"I teach only suffering and the transformation of suffering† (Thich Nhat Hanh 3). When we recognize and acknowledge our own suffering, the Buddha, which is present in everyone, will look at it, discover what has brought it about, and prescribe a course of action that can transform it into peace, joy, and liberation. Suffering is the means the Buddha used to liberate himself, and it is also the means by which we can become free. The teachings of the Buddha revolve around this central tenant known as the "Four Noble Truths". The Four Noble Truths represent the basis of the Buddha's teaching and form the central foundation of Buddhism. Historically, Lord Buddha preached on these topics during his first public commentary following his enlightenment.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The First Noble Truth states that "Life is Dukkha." Dukkha, in English â€Å"suffering", exists, even that this is the natural and universal state of beings. To live, one must suffer because it is an inevitable part of life, which one cannot avoid. All beings must endure physical suffering as well as enduring psychological suffering the form of many human emotions. Human beings are subject to impermanence and uncertainty which very often, causes us to associate with things that are unpleasant and disassociate with things that are pleasant. This may seem a bit cynical and may suggest to many individuals that Buddhism is a dismal, fatalistic religion yet it just implies we must accept the good with the bad. Buddha’s first noble truth is a statement that can obviously not be denied. In The Heart of the Buddha’s Teaching, the author provides insight into the truth of suffering. â€Å"To succeed in the practice, we must stop trying to prove that everything i... ...aintain ourselves clearly on all planes of existence. 8. Right Concentration, samyak samahdi, by establishing and maintaining our focus of appearance, manifestation and being through appropriate concentration, usually named as meditation, dhyana, we are grounded in our unfolding actuality. This is the threshold of Nirvana, to develop the eye of wisdom. Anyone and everyone can achieve the highest goal in Buddhism. All one need to do is to make an honest effort to follow the Noble Eightfold Path. It is said that those who have reached enlightenment, like Buddha Shakyamuni and his disciples took much work to attain that state of mind; it was not accidental. The Buddha and his disciples were once ordinary people, afflicted by the impurities of the mind, desire, ill-will and ignorance. It was through contacting the Dharma and purifying their words, thoughts and deeds. These individuals developed their minds and acquired wisdom so they became exalted beings able to teach and help others to realize the truth. If one applies themselves to the teachings of the Buddha, attainment of the ultimate goal of Buddhism, the goal of liberation, the everlasting bliss of Nirvana can be achieved.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Childcare Level 4 Keeping Children Safe

Unit 4 – Keeping children safe E1/D1 Five main laws that underpin the provision of health, safe and secure environments for young children are: Health and Safety at Work Act 1974Under the act 1974, both employers and employees have duties. Employers must produce a written policy explaining how they will ensure the health, safety and welfare of all people who use the premises. Employees must cooperate with these arrangements and take reasonable care of themselves and others. Employers have a duty to display a health and safety law poster.The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence Regulation (RIDDOR) 1995This regulation requires accidents, diseases and dangerous occurrence to be recorded. An accident book must be kept in order for staff to record an incidents occurred in the setting. It is very important to record any incidents that have happened in the setting. The purpose of doing this is to attend the child welfare and safeguarding. The records could be used by doctors if the child was to develop any further injury. Settings require parents to inform staff of any illness or allergies their child may have. This protects the child and staff.The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002This regulation states that substances which can make people ill or injure them must be stored and used appropriately. In a setting substances hazard to health are locked away and out of the reach for children. Only a few members of staff have the key and only they can open the cupboard unless given permission by someone else to. If someone new comes to work in the setting it is the supervisor’s duty to tell them where these substances are kept. Substances accessible to children are generally chemical and toxic free and safe to use.All objects safe to use either have a kite mare, lion mark or CE mark. The marks reassure that the product is safe for the child. Personal Protective Equipment at Work (PPE) Regulations 1992The reg ulation states employers must make sure there is suitable protective equipment available for employers who are exposed to a risk to their health and safety at work. Staff in a childcare setting should be provided with equipment if they are doing any activities that are a risk to there health. It is important that staff wear the protective clothing/equipment to prevent injuries.Equipment such as gloves, goggles, science jackets etc are there to prevent us from haring that part of our body. Gloves are used when handling bodily fluids to protect the hand from burns or reaction to the substance. Food Handling Regulation 1995This regulation states if you are preparing or handling food you must; Wash hands, Make sure the surface is clean and hygienic, Make sure food is stored at the correct temperature, Dispose of waist hygienicallyIn a setting cooks are requires to tie their hair back and wear hair nets and apron. There are different c olour chopping boards for dealing with different kin ds of foods, e. . meat and vegetables. Surfaces are cleaned thoroughly with bacterial sprays to ensure the food is prepared in the cleanest way. Food inspector’s regularly come in to settings to ensure cooks are storing food correctly and at the right temperature. If everything is done to satisfaction the setting is often awarded with a certificate. In the setting there are labels and signs to show what goes where and how they should be used. Children are encouraged to abide by this regulation as well, when they do cooking activities. Children are told to wash their hands when handling and consuming food.Staff will plan activates that will teach children how to safely prepare food. Staff ma organise with the cook to have the children watch how they prepare their food in the kitchen. E2 Bump on head –a bump on the head is a common injury in young children. If it happens in the setting it should be noted down in the accident book which every childcare setting must have. Then the injury should be treated with an ice pack. The child should be closely supervised as the injury could cause them to become drowsy. Parents should be given a copy of the accident form or a letter must be sent home.It depends on the procedure of the setting. The parent should always be informed of the accident when they come to collect their child. Asthma attack –a child having an asthma attack needs to be comforted and taken to a quiet place away from the other children. The child is then given an inhaler. Staff must call the parent/career straight away informing them about what has happened to their child. Staff should reassure the child by telling them every thing is going to be ok and try to steady the child breathing by breathing with them slowly which will allow air to get to their lungs. The child should never be left alone.Sickness and Diarrhoea – if a child has diarrhoea the parent/ career must be informed and ask to pick up the child immediately. If th e child has vomited then children should be moved away from the area and staff must clean it up, wearing protective clothing such as gloves which must be disposed after as it will protect them from infection or catching the illness. Personal Protective Equipment at Work (PPE) Regulations 1992. A child with diarrhoea should be given plenty of fluid; if the child cannot keep the fluid down then the child should be taken to the hospital as soon as possible.It is best the child stays of school for at least two days before returning. This is normally a health and safety procedure in a setting. E3 11 year old 9:00am The children are dropped of and say goodbye to parent. 9:15am A register is taken. This is done so that staffs are aware of all children who are in the setting on that day. 9:30am Children have social time. They play with each other and with activities set out for them in the baby room. 10:15am Children have their nappy change, their hands get washed and prepare them for snack time. 0:30am put the children in their baby chairs and give them milk, water, fruit or a snack to eat and drink. assist any child who needs help with feeding. 11:00am The children are taken out side for some fresh air. put the children in their buggies or if the weather is good they can crawl around and play in the sand pit. It is important staff check the outside area every day. 11:30am The children return back to the baby room. Change of nappies and clothing is done if needed and wash the face and hands of the child. 11:45am: Children are put in their baby chairs and are told what they are going to have for lunch.Staff in the kitchen should follow the Food Handling Regulation 1995, to make sure food is prepared safely. It is very important to check that the food prepared will not affect children with allergies. 12:00pm Lunch Time – Children eat their lunch and when they are finished they are put back in the baby room to play with resources around them. 1:00pm: nap time 2:3 0pm: The children have their nappies changed and their face cleaned. Staff must were protective clothing such as disposable aprons and gloves. 2:45pm Staff and children bonding time.Sing songs play with instruments, read books, plays with toys and communicate with them. 3:15pm: We prepare the children for home time. It is important staffs are aware of who is collecting the children. Parents who normally collect their child should inform the setting that someone else will be collecting their child. The setting should never give the child to anyone else if not permitted by the parent. E4 – Routine for a child age 39:00am Children arrives at nursery and is greeted by the teacher. 9:15am Children sit down on the carpet and the morning register is taken. Then issue each group their activity. :30am Children go off in their groups and do there activity each group has 30 minutes to do their activity before having to move on to do another activity. 10:00am Groups change to do a new ac tivity 10:30am Children tidy up there activity 10:45am Children put on their coats if needed collect fruit, snacks and drinks and go outside to play11:00am Children return back to the classroom and groups are change so their doing a different activity. 11:30am Groups change for the last time12:00pm Children are sent off to wash their hands and line up for lunch. Posters are placed in toilets on how to wash hands to promote hygiene.Washing hands prevents the children from infection and disease. 12:15pm Children eat their lunch. Staff are supervising the children at their table Meals are nutritional and should follow the health eating regulations. Once they have finished they go outside to play. 1:00pm Children return back to the classroom and an afternoon register is taken. 1:15pm Depending on which day of the week it is children will either have a music lesson or a P. E lesson or art lesson. A P. E lesson will allow the children to take risk and do challenging activities. It is impo rtant staff do risk assessment of any activities they have planned. :00pm Children go out to play to get fresh air and exercise. Children can explore the setting. There must be at least two members of staff supervising the children. 2:15pm Children return back to the classroom and either have golden time or free play. 3:00pm story or song time 3:30pm Children collect their jackets. Staff should only give the child to the parent or anyone given permission by the parent to collect the child. E5 In a setting staff try to offer an exciting range of experiences to the children which will stimulate and extend their skills in all areas of development.Child Care and Education. Tina Bruce. Pg 273in a setting staff should supervise the children; there must be enough staff to look after the children. All care in the setting should avoid danger in order to maintain the safety and security of the child. Children need challenging play in order to develop, risk taking will occur in these types of activities so staff must supervise these areas for the health and safety of the child. â€Å"Close supervision is the most effective way of ensuring children’s safety†. Care and Education. Tina Bruce.Pg 273Staff should always remember it is their responsibility to keep children safe in the childcare setting. Children are individuals and develop at different stages so we must have in mind all children may not be able to do the same thing at the same time. Children with special needs may need special equipment and playing resources in order to participate safely in activities in any setting. It is important we make all children feel included when panning activities in challenging environments at no time should a child feel different due to their needs or abilities.The weather can be an issue for planning. Before outdoor play, the area must be checked. Icy or slippery surfaces are dangerous for all activities planned for the children. If staffs do decide to let children p lay outside despite any weather children should be suitably clothed and equipped for it. Children should always be dressed according to the weather. A challenging environment will always involve risk and this is why staff should risk assess. Risk assessment is important however we need to create and enabling environment whilst thinking about the child’s safety.Before planning we need to think and asses the possible outcomes. An activity can be well planned but if a child get injured from it then the activity is worthless. There should always be a record of safety issues that occur E6/C1 Forest SchoolsChildren seem to thrive and their minds and bodies develop best when they accessible to stimulating outdoor environments for learning through play. A forest school is a unique educational experience. The purpose of it is to adapt an education curriculum to a participants learning style.The philosophy is to inspire individuals through achievable goals and make them independent. Th e benefit of a forest school are:   * that its child led and initiated    * it helps to work towards goals in the Early Years Foundation stage (EYFs)   * beneficial to children with emotional and behavioural difficulties   * encourages creativity and self awareness   * uses the child centred approach   * child need an interested is always catered toâ€Å"It is important that children’s basic needs are met before higher learning can take place†. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs.Forest schools are a unique way of building independence and self-esteem in young children. They originated in Sweden in the 1950s as a way of teaching children about the natural world. Children with challenging behaviour or identified as having additional or specific needs tend to develop control over behaviour, improved concentration and independence and develop their social and emotional skills. Children who are shy and timid and lack in confidence in a normal nursery environment become c onfident in their own abilities within the forest and lessen to rely on adults.Being in a forest school allows children to freedom, oxygen and space. Children can explore wildlife and the growth of things in the outside world. Children should learn and develop on first hand experience. Children are more social as they interact with the other children more. They become more confident in what they do and may speak to other children. The can explore together and discuss things they find. This can not necessarily be done in a classroom. Children respond to the sense of freedom given to them in the forest school.Children are encouraged to move away from adult interaction and become more responsible for themselves and others. Children take manageable risk in a forest school they use full size adult tools, light fires, and build dens and plenty more other challenging activities. The child knowledge and understanding of the world, language, mathematics, creative, physical, personal and soci al development underpins the whole forest school philosophy. Learning Outside the Classroom (LOtC)In November 2006 the government launched the Learning Outside the Classroom Manifesto.It was made so that children have a variety of high quality learning experiences outside the classroom. Learning outside the classroom thrives to:   * develop children learning in the environment   * nurture creativity    * provide opportunities for informal learning through play   * reduce behaviour problems an improve attendance   * stimulate, inspire and improve motivation   * provide challenging the opportunity to take acceptable levels of risk   * improves young children attitude to learning    * improves academic levels achievements   * develops skills and independence in a widening range of environment ( Tasoni, 2007. The government believes children should learn and experiment the world beyond the classroom. Children construct their own learning in the world around them. Learn ing is more engaging and relevant to the children. E7 Risk taking benefits the development of children as it influences their perception of themselves and self –esteem, it provides excitement and pleasure for the child. A child needs to take risk in order to develop risk competence.Children seem to have fewer accidents when they are more risk taking as they are more knowledgeable and skilled in assessing risk and can takes risks more safely. Panic ZoneLearning ZoneComfort ZoneOnce the appropriate risk assessments have been carried out in the setting, activities can be planned to enable children to learn from their environment while taking managed risks. Children must have the opportunity to explore their physical environment. By making children take risk we are playing an important role in developing their independence.It helps children to develop their physical development and social development as they can help other children to keep themselves safe. If we do not allow chil dren to take risk then they will not develop to the next stage of development. A child who is not allowed to take risk will not enjoy the thrill of achieving or try new challenges. The opportunity to play in and experience different environments is important in allowing children to experience challenges. If children are helped to take risk then they will develop their skill and confidence in what they do.Many settings thrive to manage risk and challenges and allow children to take risk by providing them with challenging play, experience and activities. Children learn through play. Climbing, building dens and tree housed, gardening, cooking, science experiment, bonfires etc allows the child to develop their control and coordination of their bodies. When you implement all these health and safety restrictions children will stop learning. Some parents may not allow their child to take risk as they are far too protective or scared of their child’s safety.This can prevent the child from having no independence and they will not be aware of their own danger when unsupervised and the risk they can actually manage, which may result to the child seriously hurting themselves. Children should have some awareness of the risk and challenges they can take. Being oblivious to risk is worse than a child taking risk, they can put themselves in serious danger as they don’t know the different levels of risk they can and cannot take. Parents should be the once to reinforce this. Children need to be supported by the adults to take risk.Children need to be told about any accidents that could happen so that when they are playing they are responsive of this. We as the adult in the setting should think about:   * talking to children about the potential risk in the environment   * encouraging children to think of ways to manage the risk the may come across. This can be done by making the child take upon some responsibility and indentifying and reporting hazards. * encou raging older children to take acre of younger ones where there are potential risks    * agreeing appropriate behaviour.Child Care and Education 4th edition, Penny Tasoni, 2007. Pg 195Children should always be reassured by the adult that they are here to help as this boost the child confident in what ever they do. If a child is scared to do something the adult should provide support and encourage the child to do it. The child then know they can do it and that the adult is their to help if something goes wrong. E8 D2 Each setting should have a Health and Safety policy. It should contain the overall guideline for employers, employees and any other staff.It should state the values of the setting regarding health and safety. It should state the procedures that are regarded to be followed in the setting. All procedures should be names in the Health and Safety policy. They should be regularly revised and all staff should be advised of the procedure of the setting before starting work. Ev ery childcare setting is required by law to have an accident book in a safe place in the setting and to maintain a record of accidents init.This makes the parents and staff aware of about any accidents that have happed. The book requires the following informationName of person injured: Date and time of injury:Where the accident took place:What exactly happened:What injury occurred:What treatment was given: Name and signature of person dealing with accident:Signature of witness to the report:Signature of parent:If an accident happens to the child you should call or send for first aide. He or she will provide the best care for the injury. If needed call for the supervisor as well.If the accident is serious parent/career must be informed immediately or if less serious inform them at the end of the day when they come to pick up their child. Record the accident in the accident book and ensure the parent signs it. The accident book should be kept in safe place where it is easy to access. Children contacts numbers should assessable in alphabetical order so any member of staff can find who the want quickly. In a setting there should normally be pictures of staff who are first aiders.The setting should be kept tidy so visitors and parents know there child is being left in a safe environment and staff should encourage children to tidy up after themselves as well. If a child is ill whilst in the setting the child should be removed from the classroom and taken to the first aider where the parents should be informed immediately and told to come and collect their child. If needed the child should be cleaned and changed and a member of staff should comfort him or her, until the parent comes for them. First aider should advice the parent to take the child to the family doctor if necessary.Signs of serious illness includes:   * High temperature   * Continual vomiting    * Unexplained pain   * Unusual crying in a babyChild Care and Education 4th edition, 2007, Pg 182Thi s is when a child should be taken to see a doctor. If a child has a contagious illness, e. g. swine flu, parents and local authorities must be notified that the illness is in there setting. Children who have on going illness e. g. have allergic reactions, should be kept a record of. Staff must have a have a note of all medication the child needs including how much the child needs to intake and how frequently the child needs it.All setting should have a policy of parents informing them of all the illnesses and medical attentions their child needs. Posters of the child should be made including information of what the child is allergic to, and should put up in staff rooms and places visible for all staff to see and be aware of. Children in the setting should be encouraged to keep hygienic therefore washing hands before meals and after play. The must know about germs and bacteria and how they spread and cause infections and illnesses if they don’t hygienically maintain there body as child like to but the hands in their mouth and dig their noises.If an emergency happens, e. g. a fire in kitchen, the fire alarm must be raised and everyone must evacuate the building immediately. Keeping the environment safe to support the procedure means keeping corridors clear and fire exits, ensuring everyone in the setting is aware of the assembly point children’s contact details are up t date and that it is always kept the same. It important that in the setting all staff know what to do in an emergency, practices need to be held regularly and signs and notices must be kept in visible places.Drills and practices should be taken seriously, as if it is really happening and should be recorded as the Early Years Foundation stage (EYF) states†¦http://www. eriding. net/resources/fndtn/management/101125_sclark_eyfs_safeguarding. pdf B1 There are many ways to maintain the safety and privacy of children. â€Å"Supervision is the most effective way of ensuring childrenâ €™s safety. † Child Care and Education, 2007, Pg 273Children should be treated as individuals as they have their own individual needs.Babies have no awareness of their danger and are totally dependant on their parent/carer for protection and safety. In a setting children are to be changed in a separate section in the setting and the practitioners should also be accompanied by another person just to protect themselves. When changing a child it should never be done in a place where the child is not exposed to other people and children, or where the other children are playing. Doing this is respecting the privacy of children, as the UN Convention states that all children have the right to privacy.All settings will have information about each child stating where they live and parent/career phone number etc this information should be kept in a secure place, insured to protect it from being disclosed to anyone other that member of staff in that setting. Doing this is respecting their confidential needs. Parents will inform staff about illnesses or personal information about their child and family this should not be shared with friends or other member of staff unnecessarily. Children have rights as the Children Act clearly states and it is important that we value and respect them and put them into practice in the setting.Practitioners must be aware of the policies and procedures in their setting as it inform staff how to keep the children safe. Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs theory. Safety needs is one on the five stages a human needs in order to for fill their full potential (self-actualisation) therefore; if a child does not feel safe they will not reach their full potential (self-actualisation) where personal growth and fulfilment takes place. The setting should always provide a safe and secure environment for the children meaning, ensuring the environment and equipment is checked and safe to use.Staff should check the outside area every day before the children arrive as needles, sharp objects and other harmful object can fall into the setting. Equipment in the setting should be tested if needed to make sure it work properly and in no way may harm the child using it. Toys in the setting should have a water mark on it clearly indicating that the toy has been tested and is safe to use. Special needed children may need special equipment and play resources in the setting, in order to participate safely in the daily activities or just need to have changes made to the environments to suit their need.However they should never be made to feel they can’t do things by themselves and they don’t always need assistance. We have to be careful not to scaffold the child to much as they can make choices for themselves. Staff in the setting or on duty can only deal with and watch over a certain amount of children at a time. It would be a good idea for staff to encourage children to be aware of their own safety and the s afety of others. So lessons on why and how to keep your self safe would be beneficial for the staff and more importantly the children. As they can use their own initiative and indentify what is and what is not safe to do.They become more self aware. There should be a time where staffs have one to one time with children in the setting. This time could be where children tell you how thy feel or about something that may be bothering them. What ever has been said in that conversation should only stay between you and that child as they choice to tell you because they knew that they can confide and trust you. If the child has told you something that is putting them in danger then that is the only time matter must be taken into someone else’s hands and it would be best to tell the child before doing so, just so that they are aware. A When working with children, a practitioner can have both negative and positive effect. Negatively the demands of a childcare job can seem extremely cha llenging. Tiredness, stressed, boredom, all factors that can’t be avoided in this type of job. Working hours are generally from 8:00am to 3:30pm and staff’s are always on their feet as children need consistent supervision. Children need routine and staff must stick to it†¦doing the same thing everyday becomes very boring. â€Å"Boredom is the deadliest poison. † William F. Buckley, JR.Stress can be caused by this type of work as practitioners have to maintain and work at high standards. â€Å"Stressed caused by work is the second biggest occupational health problem in the UK,† Child Care and Education, 2007, Pg 329. This is because staffs are unable to cope. The work load may interfere with private, social or family life, too much to do or simply believing childcare isn’t the right job for them. As well as the above, practitioners can be physically affected. Back problem is the biggest occupational health problem in the UK. Childcare involves picking up children.Continuously bending over and stooping to the child’s level. Children at a young age are not yet independently hygienic and are vulnerable to colds becoming ill and picking up infections. These things can easily be passed on to practitioners. Parents/careers put their child’s safety in the practitioner’s hands as they are mostly with the child during the settings hours. So a lot of pressure is on the practitioner, if any thing happens to the child accidentally or not they feel as if they where the one to blame and some parents are not very reasonable or understanding.Practitioners could become too attached to the child involving themselves in things that do not really concern them. This could be difficult for some. Some children in the setting may tell practitioners moving information. That their being abused, have difficulties, etc and they could then become emotionally attached to the child, showing love to the chid, love they may not recei ve at home or from their parents. Positively there are joys and happiness to the job. When children achieve and do well in things it makes the practitioner feel happy as they helped the child to achieve that goal.Learning new things from the children and putting it into practice. Bonding with the child finding out what they like and dislike show the practitioner that the child can confide in them and feels safe around them. Set routines will eventually develop the child to know what is coming next and they will independently get ready for it putting least pressure on the practitioner to have to run after them. Practitioner’s in the setting do all they can to support and care for the child that is why routines and doing things at certain time are in place.However some people may agree with the way the setting does things due to their own views and beliefs. Comparatively, all children need similar care but when working with different children who come from different background whose parents have different religious requirements or do not want their child eating certain foods; it can be difficult for the practitioner. Practitioners will have parents that will not agree with everything they have to say or made to feel uncomfortable with what is happening in a setting. If this happens the supervisor or tutors are there to support and discuss how you will need to deal with the ituation. The practitioner should keep themselves up to date with any changes in practices and legislations. Practitioners should not put themselves in risky situation e. g. being left alone with a child. Just to avoid accusations being made as â€Å"The number of children contacting a sexual abuse helpline service has increased by almost 50% in three years†. http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/scotland/7877823. stm. There are websites and books available to practitioners that can support them and give information about how to deal with problems they have.In all setting there are polic ies and guidelines to help them meet the care needs of children such as health and safety, confidentiality and protection polices. It is vital that procedures are followed to protect themselves. This in itself causes fewer problems. E9 Books  * Bruce, T ,( 2007) Child Care and Education, * Pound L, (2005) How children learn, Step Forward Publishing Ltd (United Kingdom) * Tasoni P , (2007) Child Care and Education 4th edition, Websites http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/scotland/7877823. stmhttp://www. eriding. net/resources/fndtn/management/101125_sclark_eyfs_safeguarding. pdf

Monday, January 6, 2020

Homers Underworld in The Odyssey Vs. Vergils Underworld in The Aeneid and the Values that the Similarities and Differences Posses Free Essay Example, 1250 words

Odysseus’ reconciliation with his dead mother is quite ironic as she is the person who gave him life and he ends up meeting her in the world of the dead. On the other hand Homer may have favored Anticleia to greet Odysseus in the underworld and Laertes to greet Odysseus in his hometown because men had more position than women did in Homer’s time. Virgil may have specifically chosen Aeneas to meet his father as he slept with a goddess therefore having more status then Anticleia or any other woman. A demigod connotes power, â€Å"Roman, remember by your strength to rule Earth’s peoples – for your arts are to be these: to pacify, to impose the rule of law, to spare the conquered and battle down the proud. † (6. 1151-1154) Furthermore, both Aeneas and Odysseus encounter unburied friends in purgatory, unable to enter peacefully because they were never buried. Odysseus is surprised when he meets Elpenor, his friend who died having fallen off of a roof in Circe’s island rather left to rot, while Aeneas is taken aback when he meets Palinaurus, a citizen of his town who was killed by a group of vagabonds in Italy and also not given the respect of a proper burial. We will write a custom essay sample on Homers Underworld in The Odyssey Vs. Vergils Underworld in The Aeneid and the Values that the Similarities and Differences Posses or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now Both unburied friends begged for a proper burial so that they could have a normal life in the underworld, both were denied. Not only does this scene show plot similarities, it also exemplifies differences in the two main characters. Odysseus responds to the request by promising to return to Circe’s island to bury Elpenor’s remains gracefully while in Aeneus’ case, his guide, the Sybil, promises to persuade the locals to do the task. This is yet another example of Virgil setting a higher standard for the Trojans in opposition to the Greeks, as Aeneas simply has more important tasks to accomplish than soiling his hands with labor meant for the common man. Traveling further into the Underworld, Odysseus acquires a first hand glimpse of the horrific side of hell while it is merely described to Aeneas by the Sybil. Even when told of Tityus, a character whose liver is devoured by vultures every day and grows back every night, Vergil refrains from letting Aeneas actually witness the revolting process while Homer forces his main character observe first hand. Aeneas’ superiority is once again expressed. After passing through the journey to the ultimate destination, entering the actual Underworld, more similarities arise anew. Although both characters have to make many sacrifices, Aeneas’ are more suited for a gentleman.